ECN Policy Studies is part of the Energy research Centre of the Netherlands (ECN). The unit Policy Studies carries out research and provides advice in the ﬁ eld of energy policy. Key activities are development of scenarios, analyses of energy markets, comparison and evaluation of energy and environmental policies and socio-economic analyses of innovation and transitions. The 65 researchers of ECN Policy Studies form a multidisciplinary team with academic and applied energy knowledge of drivers, markets, sectors, policies and technologies. A range of modelling tools is available to support the analyses.