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Scrap preheating for iron and steel © ClimateTechWiki and respective owners

Steel is by far the world’s most important metal, with a global production of 1120 Million Metric ton (MMt) in 2009 (Worldsteel, 2010). In september 2010 the most important steel producers were China (42, 90 %), EU-27 (12, 79 %), Japan (8, 26 %), USA (5, 95 %) and India (5, 05 %) (Worldsteel, 2010). Figure 1 shows the development of world steel production since 1999. Clearly, China has become the dominant steel producer.


Small hydropower Small Hydro in Indonesia

Small hydropower here refers to hydroelectric power plants below 10MW installed capacity. Hydroelectric power plants are power plants that produce electrical energy by driving turbines and generators thanks to the gravitational force of falling or flowing water. Through the natural water cycle mainly evaporation, wind and rain, the water is then brought back to its original height. It is thus a renewable form of energy.

Smart grid © ClimateTechWiki and respective owners

The smart grid is the state-­‐of-­‐the-­‐art technology for electrical system that can sensibly execute the operations to all interconnected elements -­‐ from generator to consumers. Smart grid simply converts the conventional power grid towards the modern grid in order to regulate sustainable, economic and reliable electricity (Massoud &Wollenberg, 2005 and Gellings, 2009). Smart grid intelligently executes operations from primary and secondary generators through the transmission and distribution network to the different types of consumers.

Smelt reduction for iron and steel sector © ClimateTechWiki and respective owners

The iron and steel sector is the second-largest industrial user of energy, consuming 616 Mtoe in 2007 and is also the largest industrial source of CO2 emissions. The five most important producers – China, Japan, the United States, the European Union and Russia – account for over 70% of total world steel production. Smelting reduction is a term assigned to a group of upcoming ironmaking processes which aim at overcoming certain fundamental problems of the existing blast furnace route.

Solar cookers © Climate Tech Wiki - acc and respective owners

People have been using the solar cooker or oven for centuries. The first solar oven was made by a Swiss scientist in 1797. Solar cookers may be used to cook food and to heat the drinking water. The solar cooker concentrates and bends solar radiation with the help of a reflecting surface on the back, top, and bottom sides of a pot. Handling it is easy, but the solar cooker does need its space: the larger the reflector surface, the stronger its power to heat. 

Solar Cooling and Hybrid Systems with Heating and Hot Water © Climate Tech Wiki - acc and respective owners

Solar cooling technologies transform solar radiation to provide space cooling and refrigeration services. Air conditioning in buildings has traditionally been provided by air conditioners using electrically driven vapour compression chillers. These are responsible not only for GHG emissions, but also use CFCs and HCFCs and related compounds as refrigerant fluids, which also contribute to climate change and are known to deplete the ozone layer.

Solar dryer © ClimateTechWiki and respective owners

Traditional methods of food drying is to spread the foodstuffs to place the foodstuffs in the sun in the open air. This method, called sun drying, is effective for small amounts of food. The area needed for sun drying expands with food quantity and since the food is placed in the open air, it is easily contaminated. Therefore, one major reason why sun drying is not easily performed with larger quantities of food is that the monitoring and overview becomes increasingly more difficult with increasing food quantities.

Solar Heating technologies © ClimateTechWiki and respective owners

Solar thermal technology can be used to provide heating for domestic or industrial uses. A solar heating system can capture the sun's radiation and use it for both hot water heating and supplement home heating by piping hot water through traditional or modern radiators, furnaces, or use it in hydronic system for in floor radiant heat. In most cases solar should be used with conventional power as a supplement, this way you never have to rely completely on the sun shinning. An important part of a home solar system is the controller.

Solar lanterns © ClimateTechWiki and respective owners

In developing countries the solar lantern is a cheap alternative to a Solar Home System (SHS) providing 4-5 hours of high quality lighting service. It provides higher quality light than the use of candles or kerosene lamps. They are also used to provide street lighting in rural areas.

Solar PV Solar cells (source:

Solar photovoltaic, or simply photovoltaic (SPV or PV), refers to the technology of using solar cells to convert solar radiation directly into electricity. A solar cell works based on the photovoltaic effect. R&D and practical experience with photovoltaics have led to the development of three generations of solar cells: Crystalline silicon based solar cells, thin film solar cells and third generation PV. Solar PV is very likely to play a significant role in climate change mitigation in the future.

Solar technologies © ClimateTechWiki and respective owners

Solar technologies facilitate the extraction of a renewable energy source by harnessing power from the sun. There are two technological principles that can be used to achieve this: (1) Collecting thermal energy from the sun, known as solar thermal; and (2) Converting light into electricity, through the photovoltaic process. Both solar thermal and photovoltaic (PV) can be integrated into buildings. Applications for PV include building integrated photovoltaic (BIPV), solar home systems (non-grid connected) and solar charging stations.

Solar thermal for hot water for domestic and industrial use © Climate Tech Wiki - acc and respective owners

Solar thermal technology can be used to provide hot water for domestic or industrial uses. Recently, ‘combi’ systems have been introduced which can provide both space and water heating. Advances in the technology have provided so-called solar assisted air conditioning. The systems can be tailored to different needs and circumstances, such as industrial applications and domestic use.

Solar towers (updraft) image solar tower

A solar updraft power plant consists of a chimney, a collector area and wind turbines. In the collector area air is heated by solar radiation under a glass or plastic roof. This heat is thus forced upwards through the chimney thereby creating a wind force. By placing wind turbines inside the tower the force can be used to produce electricity. The technology is particularly suitable in remote areas (for instance, areas in developing countries) where low-value land can be used for the heat collection. The collector itself functions as a greenhouse and could be used for growing cash crops.

Solar water pumps © ClimateTechWiki and respective owners

A reliable and clean water supply is an essential need but a large number of people currently lack this basic provision. Solar water pumps is a socially and environmentally attractive technology to supply water. Especially if the need for water is in remote locations which are beyond the reach of power lines, solar power is often the economically preferred technology.

Supporting Cycling California bikes used in South Africa’s Shova Kalula (Ride Easy) program

Cycling is a cheap, healthy, efficient form of transport that only produces greenhouse gases in the production and distribution of bicycles, and it is very well suited to short to medium travel distances. It is also very inexpensive for cities and other localities to develop cycling routes, relative to the cost of other transport infrastructure.

Sustainable community design and practices © ClimateTechWiki and respective owners

As the concept and practices of a sustainable built environment have evolved over the years, it is increasingly recognised that the scope should be expanded beyond individual buildings to the community scale. Sustainable community design and practices refer to planning, designing, building, managing and promoting social and economic development of communities to meet sustainable development objectives.