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Manure management practices © ClimateTechWiki and respective owners

Agricultural lands (lands used for agricultural production, consisting of cropland, managed grassland and permanent crops including agro-forestry and bio-energy crops) occupy about 40- 50% of the Earth’s land surface. Agriculture accounted for an estimated emission of 5.1 to 6.1 GtCO2-eq/yr in 2005 (10-12% of total global anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs)).

Methane Capture at Landfills for Electricity and Heat © ClimateTechWiki and respective owners

Under the anaerobic (oxygen free) conditions of landfill sites, organic waste is broken down by micro-organisms, leading to the formation of landfill gas (LFG). LFG is a gaseous mixture which consists mostly of methane and carbon dioxide, but also of a small amount of hydrogen and occasionally trace levels of hydrogen sulphide.

Methanol cook stoves © ClimateTechWiki and respective owners

Alcohol burning stoves based on methanol can be used to supply a cooking service, water heating and heating of buildings. The technology can be applied in households, institutions (e.g. schools) and industries where it is used for boiler heating.

Micro-algae for mitigating carbon dioxide © ClimateTechWiki and respective owners

Micro-algae are a group of unicellular or simple multicellular fast growing photosynthetic microorganisms that can conserve CO2 efficiently from different sources, including the atmosphere, industrial exhaust gases, and soluble carbonate salts. Micro-algae act as a major system for converting atmospheric CO2 into lipids under sunlight and increase the output of algal oil. The enzyme acetyl Co-A carboxylase (ACCase) from micro-algae catalyses the key metabolic step in the synthesis of oil in algae.

Modal shift in freight transport © Climate Tech Wiki - acc and respective owners

The modal split for freight transport varies greatly by region, and is largely determined by geographical and economic factors. However there is a common trend towards more use of road transport, at the expense of rail and water transport. The latter modes have a substantially better environmental profile, but are limited by longer delivery times and the necessity of pre- and post-haulage by truck, i.e. inter-modal transport. In the logistic chain used nowadays, there are small local stocks and fast on demand delivery is required.

Motorised three-wheeler taxis © ClimateTechWiki and respective owners

This article presents readers with the option of retaining three-wheeler taxis – with attention to better technology, maintenance and regulation – on the grounds that they perform a valuable role in the localities where they exist, and if they were removed the vehicles and travel practices that replaced them would produce increased congestion, road injuries and fatalities, air pollution and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. On these grounds, localities that do not have three-wheeler taxis might even consider introducing newer, cleaner-technology versions of them.