|Improved Cook Stoves||
Since about 1.5 billion people in the world use traditional stoves for cooking (and heating), efforts to improve the efficiency of cookstoves have been increasingly popular in the developing world. Improved stoves come in different forms and sizes.
|Improving Private Vehicle Operating Standards||
The measures outlined in this section are part of a bigger picture. Reduced greenhouse gas emissions will result from shifts to other transport modes, from reduced levels of travel, and from the adoption of new vehicle technologies and fuels. But at least in the short to medium future, these measures cannot, either individually or together, entirely reduce greenhouse gas emissions to the extent that is necessary. It is also essential that conventional private vehicles on the roads now and in the future are as fuel efficient and nonpolluting as possible.
|Increased glass recycling||
Over half of the energy consumption of the glass industry is used for melting in order to form the glass. Adding recycled glass to the raw materials reduces energy use and CO2 emissions. Another advantage is that less raw material is needed. Currently, the world-average glass recycling rate is about 50%. Higher recycling rates are possible, especially in regions where the recovery rate is still low.
|Industrial Heat Pumps||
Industrial heat pumps can work in a variety of ways. This description discusses industrial heat pumps in general and additionally focuses on the most common applications: Mechanical Vapour Recompression, Thermal Vapour Recompression, Absorption, and mechanical compression.
|Inert anode technology for aluminium smelters||
“Final energy consumption in the global aluminum industry in 2007 was estimated to be 93 Mtoe. The industry is highly electricity-intensive. Primary aluminum smelters used just over 50 Mtoe of electricity in 2007, equivalent to about 4% of global electricity consumption. In total, the aluminum industry emits 0.4 Gt CO2-equivalent of greenhouse gases, including process emissions and indirect emissions from electricity production, equivalent to just under 1% of total global greenhouse-gas emissions (IEA, 2010).”
|Influencing travel choices||
Travel is complex in the modern world, especially in cities. There are a large number of ways of getting around: cars and taxis and auto-rickshaws; bicycles, motor scooters and motorcycles; buses, trains, lightrail and ferries; and of course on foot. These are just the more common modes of transport; many others are variants of or additional to these.
|Insulation in buildings||
Insulation refers to an energy savings measure, which provides resistance to heat flow. Naturally, heat flows from a warmer to a cooler space. By insulating a house, one can reduce the heat loss in buildings in cold weather or climate, and reduce the heat surplus in warmer weather or climate. Insulating a house has several benefits such as energy savings, cost savings and increased comfort. Barriers to undertake energy savings measures may be split incentives, relatively high investment costs, and the time and effort required to realise the energy savings.
|Integrated gasification combined-cycle||
Coal gasification technology, often referred to as Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC), is the process of gasifying coal to produce electricity. The coal is gasified by burning finely-crushed coal in an environment with less than half the amount of oxygen needed to fully burn the coal. Essentially, the coal is not burned directly but undergoes a reaction with oxygen and steam. This produces what is known as synthetic gas or “syngas.” This gas is then combusted in a combined cycle generator to produce electricity.
|Intelligent transport systems||
Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS) apply information and communication technologies to vehicles and to transport infrastructure. This may increase the reliability, safety, efficiency and quality of transport systems. An increase in the efficiency of the transport system usually also leads to a reduction in associated GHG emissions. Some ITS applications are already being used in traveller information systems and electronic road pricing.
CO2 emissions can be reduced with effective irrigation by increasing yields and crop residues which can enhance carbon sequestration. (Smith et. al., 2008).