|Forest management techniques for mitigation (REDD+)||
Several forest mitigation options exist: afforestation/reforestation, Deforestation and forest degradation, forest management for carbon stocks and wood products. The IPCC notes that when properly designed and implemented, these forestry mitigation optiosn should provide substantial co-benefits in terms of employment and income generation opportunities, biodiversity and watershed conservation, provision of timber and fibre as well as aestethic and recreational services (IPCC, 2007).
|Fuel cells for mobile applications||
Fuel cells are used to produce electricity. They are considered a promising technology to replace conventional combustion engines in vehicles. Fuel cells may also replace batteries in portable electronic equipment. The most widely used types of fuel cells for mobile devices are Proton Exchange Membrane fuel cells (PEM FC) which are often used in vehicles, and Direct Methanol fuel cells, used in portable applications. PEM fuel cells use hydrogen or certain alcohols such as methanol as fuel.
|Fuel cells for stationary applications||
Fuel cells make it possible to efficiently convert the energy stored in several kinds of gases, among which hydrogen and methane, into electricity. Although the concept, according to which fuel cells operate, was already discovered in 1839 by William Grove, the first development only started in 1932 through Francis Bacon’s exploratory work. It was only in the early 1960s that significant efforts were put into fuel cell development, when NASA decided that fuel cells were to become the principal replacement for batteries in spacecraft (Bacon, 1969 and Schoots et al., 2010).
|Fuel switch in the ammonia industry||
Ammonia is the main product of the fertilizer industry. Developing countries account for the majority of worldwide production. About 77% of ammonia production is based on steam reforming of natural gas, with most of the remaining production based on heavy-oil or coal-based processes. A further shift from heavy-oil or coal-based to gas-based processes can strongly reduce energy use and emissions.