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Efficient air conditioning systems © ClimateTechWiki and respective owners

Cooling is becoming a rapidly emerging demand in developing countries, which signifies that the building design and shell measures need to reduce cooling loads, and the efficiency of air-conditioning will need to be improved. Air conditioning systems are implemented in numerous sectors, namely buildings, industry and transport. They are distinguished in two main categories, room air conditioners and central air conditioners.

Efficient electric motors © ClimateTechWiki and respective owners

Electric motors are widely used in various sectors where mechanical energy is needed. It is an electromechanical device which converts electrical energy into rotary mechanical energy. This output is then further converted to provide the needed final use-­‐energy. The two main components of motor are the stator (stationary element) and the rotor (rotating element).

Efficient lighting systems © ClimateTechWiki and respective owners

Lighting in is reported to consume as much as 21% of the total energy use in buildings (Levine et al., 2007), and to account for about 17.5% of global electricity use (Pike Research, 2010). A market shift to energy-efficient alternatives would reduce the world’s electricity demand for lighting by an estimated 18% (UNEP, 2009). Therefore, efficient lighting systems are one of the most important climate change mitigation measures for the building sector. Efficient lighting technologies include energy efficient lamps, ballasts and light fixtures.

Electric vehicles Electric car at charging point in London

Electric vehicles are about 2.5 times more energy efficient than their counterparts which are powered solely by internal combustion engines. This high energy efficiency is the main reason why electric vehicles can contribute to lower the CO2 emission and energy consumption of traffic substantially. Electric vehicles have zero tailpipe exhaust emissions and thus contribute substantially to a better air quality. Additionally, electric vehicles are inherently silent and can help to reduce the noise levels in cities.

Electronic Road Pricing ERP Gantry in Singapore (source:

Road pricing is an effective economic instrument to reduce congestion, and to limit the growth in private vehicle travel demand. It has been successfully implemented in cities such as Singapore and London, resulting in substantial improvements in the urban environment and transport system. The largest barrier for ERP is public opposition by car users. However acceptance often increases after implementation. Important success factors are clear communication of the benefits to society and complementary policies regarding public transport and parking.

Energy Efficiency and Saving in the Agri-food Industry © Climate Tech Wiki - acc and respective owners

The agri-food industry comprises an integrated complex production chain which ranges from the primary agriculture to the mature food and beverage sector. It is considered as one of the largest sectors  worldwide with significant contribution to the economic advancement of nations and major social impact.

Energy Efficiency and Saving in the Cement Industry © Climate Tech Wiki - acc and respective owners

Cement is a global commodity, manufactured at thousands of plants. The industry is consolidating globally, but large international firms account for only 30% of the worldwide market. The principal and most visible market for cement is the construction industry in a multitude of applications where it is combined with water to make concrete. Most modern civil engineering projects, office buildings, apartments and domestic housing projects use concrete, often in association with steel reinforcement systems.

Energy efficient refrigerators Videocon Refrigerator, 3 Star Indian BEE rating

Refrigerators are used in households across the world to store food at a temperature of about 3 to 5 °C (37 to 41 °F) in order prevent it from spoiling. This technology description focuses on refrigerators for residential use and on energy efficiency performance only. It does not take into account potential GHG effects caused by the refrigerant.

Energy management and performance improvement © ClimateTechWiki and respective owners

Once various energy efficiency measures have been deployed in a building, energy management and performance improvements can be put in place as a set of tools to: (1) Ensure energy systems’ performance meet the design intention, through proper commissioning during building handover procedure. (2) Monitor, evaluate and manage the energy performance to optimise occupants’ comfort and a building’s functions, while maintaining energy efficiency, through Building Energy Management System (BEMS).

Energy Savings in buildings © ClimateTechWiki and respective owners

Technologies and measures which are aimed at reducing the use of energy in buildings could have several advantages, such as lower energy bills, increasing comfort of living or working, and reduced impact on the environment, including reduction of CO2 emissions. The options considered for energy savings particularly leading to CO2 emission reductions include the following:

Energy Storage: Batteries © ClimateTechWiki and respective owners

Many storage technologies have been considered in the context of utility-scale energy storage systems. These include:

Energy Storage: Capacitors © ClimateTechWiki and respective owners

Many storage technologies have been considered in the context of utility-scale energy storage systems. These include:

Energy Storage: Compressed Air (CAES)

Energy storage provides a variety of socio-economic benefits and environmental protection benefits. Energy storage can be performed in a variety of ways. Examples are: pumped hydro storage, superconducting magnetic energy storage and capacitors can be used to store energy. Each technology has its advantages and disadvantages. One essential differentiating characteristic of the different technologies is the amount of energy the technology can store and another is how fast this energy can be released. This technology description focuses on Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES).

Energy storage: flywheels © ClimateTechWiki and respective owners

Many storage technologies have been considered in the context of utility-scale energy storage systems. These include:

Energy Storage: Phase Change Materials for Thermal Energy Storage © ClimateTechWiki and respective owners

One of the disadvantages of modern lightweight construction is its lack of thermal mass, which means this type of building can overheat in the summer and can’t retain heat in the winter. Often, heating and cooling systems are installed to maintain temperatures within the comfort zone. However, it is also possible to replicate the effect of thermal mass of the building using phase change materials (PCM).

Energy Storage: Pumped Storage © ClimateTechWiki and respective owners

Next to the other energy storage technologies, such as phase change materials, batteries and CAES, pumped hydro is another option for energy storage. Pumped hydro storage uses two water reservoirs which are separated vertically. In times of excess electricity, often off peak hours, water is pumped from the lower reservoir to the upper reservoir. When required, the water flow is reversed and guided through turbines to generate electricity.

Energy Storage: Superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) © ClimateTechWiki and respective owners

Many storage technologies have been considered in the context of utility-scale energy storage systems. These include:

Energy storage: Underground Thermal Energy Storage © ClimateTechWiki and respective owners

Energy storage technologies have a large role to play in a low-carbon society. For instance, energy storage helps to address renewable energy intermittency. Storing either electrical or thermal energy prolongs the period in which renewable energy can deliver its energy, and deliver it when the demand is there. Moreover, energy storage technologies can be used as an energy efficiency measure in structures by making smart use of heat and cold storage. This reduces the need for heating and cooling in the structure.

Energy tower downdraft image energy tower downdraft

Energy towers are vertical, hollow towers constructed in dry desert regions with heights of 400 metres or more. Water from nearby sources (such as a sea) is pumped to the top of the tower and sprayed into it so that it cools the air. This creates a downwards draft through the tower which is transferred into energy through wind turbines. The technology is still in a research and development stage with involvement of research institutes from Israel and India.

Ethanol Cook Stoves greengel stove

Alcohol burning stoves based on ethanol can be used for cooking, water heating and heating of buildings. The technology can be applied in households, institutions (e.g. schools) and industries where it is used for boiler heating. Ethanol is produced from sugar plants or other sources of biomass. An advantage of the technologies is that ethanol burning does not have the air pollution problems of simple biomass burning for cooking purposes. As ethanol provides a higher heat flux with no soot or smoke, cooking and hot water production can take place faster and pollution free.