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Carbon Capture and Storage © Climate Tech Wiki - acc and respective owners

Carbon capture and storage (CCS) is a combination of technologies designed to prevent the release of CO2 generated through conventional power generation and industrial production processes by injecting the CO2 in suitable underground storage reservoirs. Basically, capture technology separates CO2 emissions from the process, after which the compressed CO2 is transported to a suitable geological storage location and injected. Feasible methods of transporting of CO2 include both pipelines and shipping.

Carbon sink and low-carbon building materials © ClimateTechWiki and respective owners

Materials and products used in building, such as steel and aluminum, are created by a production process of raw material extraction, raw material process, melting, manufacture to final products, and transportation to building site. Each of the steps consumes energy, which is also expressed in terms of carbon emissions. Total carbon emissions of all building materials and products and the construction involved to put them together is known as building’s embodied carbon. Embodied carbon accounts for about 20% of the carbon emissions from the building sector (Lane, 2010).

CCS Oxyfueling cement kilns © ClimateTechWiki and respective owners

CCS is a new technology, not yet proven at the industrial scale in cement production, but potentially promising. CO2 is captured as it is emitted, compressed to a liquid, then transported in pipelines to be permanently stored deep underground.

Cellulosic ethanol © ClimateTechWiki and respective owners

Cellulosic ethanol is an alcohol produced from the feedstock available in wide variety of plant materials and agricultural residues. Although chemically identical with the first generation bioethanol, it differs in the use of raw material. Hence cellulosic ethanol differs from the conventional ethanol in its use of feedstock and the process implied at the different stages of production.

Charcoal production for cooking and heating © Climate Tech Wiki - acc and respective owners

Charcoal is used as a domestic fuel for cooking and heating in many developing countries. It is the most popular barbecue fuel throughout the world. Its advantages when used as a domestic fuel are that it: produces less smoke while burning, requires little or no preparation before actual use, has a higher energy content per unit mass, can be easily transported and stored, and reused when left over after cooking. 

Clinker substitute (slag, natural pozzolans, synthetic pozzolans) © ClimateTechWiki and respective owners

Cement is a global commodity, manufactured at thousands of plants. The industry is consolidating globally, but large international firms account for only 30% of the worldwide market. The principal and most visible market for cement is the construction industry in a multitude of applications where it is combined with water to make concrete. Most modern civil engineering projects, office buildings, apartments and domestic housing projects use concrete, often in association with steel reinforcement systems.

Coal mine/bed methane recovery © ClimateTechWiki and respective owners

Methane is the primary constituent of natural gas and is stored within coal as a result of the coalification process whereby plant material is converted to coal. Due to coal mining activities (and subsequent pressure decrease in coal seams), methane is released from the coal and surrounding strata. This leads to the build-up of methane in mines, which potentially creates an explosive hazard. Ventilation and/or degasification systems are used to prevent the build up of methane and to ensure its release to the atmosphere for safety reasons.

Coke Dry Quenching iron and steel sector © ClimateTechWiki and respective owners

The iron and steel sector is the second-largest industrial user of energy, consuming 616 Mtoe in 2007 and is also the largest industrial source of CO2 emissions. The five most important producers – China, Japan, the United States, the European Union and Russia – account for over 70% of total world steel production. 

Combined Heat and Power (CHP): large-scale © Climate Tech Wiki - acc and respective owners

Co-generation is the combined production of useful thermal energy and electricity (Combined Heat and Power, CHP) from the same primary fuel. CHP can take on many forms and encompass a range of technologies, but will always be based upon an efficient, integrated system that combines electricity production and heat recovery. By using the heat output from the electricity production for heating or industrial applications, CHP plants generally convert 75-80% of the fuel source into useful energy, while the most modern CHP plants reach efficiencies of 90% or more (IPCC, 2007).

Combined Heat and power (CHP): small-scale small cogeneration system

Co-generation is the combined production of useful thermal energy and electricity (Combined Heat and Power, CHP) from the same primary fuel. CHP can take on many forms and encompasses a range of technologies, but will always be based upon an efficient, integrated system that combines electricity production and heat recovery. By using the heat output from the electricity production for heating or industrial applications, CHP plants generally convert 75-80% of the fuel source into useful energy, while the most modern CHP plants reach efficiencies of 90% or more (IPCC, 2007).

Combustion of Municipal Solid Waste for District Heat or Electricity waste to energy

Municipal solid waste (MSW) refers to the stream of garbage collected through community sanitation services. Such waste can consist of a variety of materials, including both renewable energy sources (such as food, paper, and wood) and non-renewable energy sources (such as glass, plastics, and tires). Obviously, as several sources have shown, from an environmental perspective the most sustainable option for MSW is to reduce the amount of waste.

Community-based energy services © ClimateTechWiki and respective owners

Community based energy services, as the term suggests, provide heating, cooling and renewable energy to more than one building. It is an alternative to the use of individual energy related systems in each building. The services often consist of: (1) Centralised generation and supply of heating/cooling as well as energy from renewable sources; (2) A distribution network to bring heating/cooling to buildings within the community; (3) Other installations (air handling units, and controls) within individual buildings.

Compact Fluorescent Lamps © Climate Tech Wiki - acc and respective owners

Compact Fluorescent Lamp (CFL) technology provides a low energy lighting service through the use of a compact fluorescent light bulb that replaces the normal Tungsten filament light bulb.

Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) in transport CNG fueling station (source:

The use of Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) as a transport fuel is a mature technology and widely used in parts of the world. Although compressed natural gas is a fossil fuel, it is the cleanest burning fuel at the moment in terms of NOx and soot (PM) emissions.

Concentrating Solar Power A solar collector assembly

Concentrating solar power (CSP) systems concentrate the energy from the sun for electricity production. This is done by heating a fluid which is then used to raise steam for a conventional turbine for on and off-grid electricity provision. These systems can also provide heat, either at high temperatures directly for chemical reactions, e.g., chemical processing, or as a by-product for desalination plants or cooling systems, depending on requirements.

Condebelt drying for pulp and paper industry © ClimateTechWiki and respective owners

The Condebelt drying process was patented in 1975. The Condebelt drying process was originally created to increase drying rates of paper. Condebelt drying produces approximately 10-15 times higher drying rates than conventional cylinder drying. These higher drying rates are achieved by higher contact temperatures, higher pressing between the hot surface and paper and relatively low thermal resistance between steam and paper in the Condebelt drying process.

Conservation tillage © ClimateTechWiki and respective owners

Conventional tillage is the traditional method of farming in which soil is prepared for planting by completely inverting it with a tractor-pulled plough, followed by subsequent additional tillage to smooth the soil surface for crop cultivation. In contrast, conservation tillage is a tillage system that conserves soil, water and energy resources through the reduction of tillage intensity and retention of crop residue. Conservation tillage involves the planting, growing and harvesting of crops with limited disturbance to the soil surface.

Cook Stoves on Biomass Gasification © ClimateTechWiki and respective owners

The technology can be applied in households, institutions (such as schools) and industries where it is used for boiler heating. Biomass gasification household stoves work by a high temperature conversion of biomass in a restricted oxygen environment to a mixture of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, hydrogen, and methane. The hydrogen and methane are then burned without emitting pollutants. For larger applications pure oxygen may be used which gives a higher calorific value gas without the nitrogen.  

Cool roofs © ClimateTechWiki and respective owners

Cool roofs can help reduce the heat island effect and also help improving the energy performance of the buildings. A cool roof can reflect the sun’s heat and emits absorbed radiation back into the atmosphere at a higher rate than standard materials. The cool roofs technology has been used for more than 20 years (EPA, 2012). The cool roof basically helps in reflecting sunlight and heat, thus reducing the temperature of the roofs. 20-­‐25% of the urban surface is reported to be occupied by roof surface.

Cover crop technology © ClimateTechWiki and respective owners

Cover crops are fast growing crops such as winter rye and clovers that are planted between periods of regular crop cultivation. By covering the soil surface, they protect the soil from erosion, and if leguminous, they fix nitrogen. Later, when ploughed under, they provide humus and carbon to the soil, as well as nitrogen for the subsequent crop.

Covering manure storage facilities © ClimateTechWiki and respective owners

Manure coverage is the practice of covering the surface of manure with materials of certain thickness instead of the traditional method of piling up manure to be exposed to air. Manure coverage changes the amount of manure surface in contact with air. Due to some reactions, i.e., a series of physical, biological and chemical reactions, it can reduce GHG emissions.

Crop varieties with enhanced carbon sequestration © ClimateTechWiki and respective owners

This biological approach uses traditional plant breeding and newer biotechnological methods to select and tailor crop varieties with greater carbon sequestration capacity. Improvements in agronomic practices generally have the goal to increase yields. Then humans or livestock usually consume these yields, and subsequently their respiration returns the CO2 to the atmosphere relatively quickly.

Cropland management © ClimateTechWiki and respective owners

Agricultural ecosystems hold large carbon reserves (IPCC, 2001a), mostly in soil organic matter.Historically, these systems have lost more than 50 Pg Carbon, but some of this carbon lost can be recovered through improved management, thereby withdrawing atmospheric CO2 (Paustian et al., 1998; Lal, 1999, 2004a).