|Advanced Bio-hydrocarbon Fuels||
Advanced bio-hydrocarbons are second generation biofuels and are derived from lignocellulosic biomass such as trees, grasses, waste, agricultural or forest residues, or algae. These fuels are not produced using the agricultural commodities like corn, sugarcane, soybean, etc.
|Advanced paper recycling||
Recycling is a process which reconsiders the current life cycle of creating products and materials and associated process and final waste. Specifically, paper recycling is the process of recovering waste paper and remaking it into new products. Recycling provides several socio-economic development benefits as well as environmental benefits.
|Advanced wet quenching for iron and steel sector||
The iron and steel sector is the second-largest industrial user of energy, consuming 616 Mtoe in 2007 and is also the largest industrial source of CO2 emissions. The five most important producers – China, Japan, the United States, the European Union and Russia – account for over 70% of total world steel production. A standard technique that is applied worldwide is the coke wet quenching of coke, where quenching vapors are bunkered before delivery to the atmosphere and subsequently or immediately a condensate is drawn off and cooled further.
|Aerobic biological treatment (composting)||
Many developed and developing countries practice composting and anaerobic digestion of mixed waste or biodegradable waste fractions (kitchen or restaurant wastes, garden waste, sewage sludge). Both processes are best applied to source-separated waste fractions. While composting is often appropriate for dry feedstocks, anaerobic digestion is particularly appropriate for wet wastes.
|Agriculture for biofuel production||
Biomass from the agriculture sector can be used to produce biofuels – solid, liquid and gaseous. Biofuels substitute fossil fuels for energy delivery. If biomass is grown in a sustainable cycle to produce biofuels, such agriculture practices mitigate GHG emissions due to fossil fuel not being combusted. Biofuels can be derived from biomass sources such as corn, sugar cane, sorghum, soybean, crop residues, oil palm (Elaeis guineensis), switch grass, Miscanthus, bioengineered algae, and Jatropha curcas seeds, trees, and grasses.
Agro-forestry, as defined by the World Agro-forestry Centre, is “a dynamic, ecologically based, natural resources management system that, through the integration of trees on farms and in the agricultural landscape, diversifies and sustains production for increased social, economic, and environmental benefits for land users at all levels”.
|Anaerobic biological treatment (Anaerobic digestion)||
Many developed and developing countries practice composting and anaerobic digestion of mixed waste or biodegradable waste fractions (kitchen or restaurant wastes, garden waste, sewage sludge). Both processes are best applied to source-separated waste fractions: anaerobic digestion is particularly appropriate for wet wastes, while composting is often appropriate for drier feedstocks.